Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Clinical Presentation.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease usually presents with symptoms that are localized to the pelvis and reproductive systems and also other systems and organs in the body (Kreisel et al., 2017). Pain in the lower abdomen is the first symptom of PID. Patients with this condition usually complain of sharp piercing pain in either or both of the lower abdominal quadrants. Other patients will complain of a burning sensation that radiates either to the back of the lower extremities (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017). Different pain characteristic is due to the various causative agents and organs involved. There is vaginal discharge in PID patients. The characteristic of the discharge is abnormal smell or odor. The amount of the discharge also varies with patients with PID. The majority will have heavy and uncontrolled bleeding both during and after the usual menstrual cycle (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015).

Urinary tract symptoms are also present with PID. There is difficulty in urination accompanied by severe pain. Such symptoms will occur if the disease is related to a urinary tract infection. Abnormal sexual intercourse is another symptom of PID. With this condition, the patient will complain of pain sex accompanied by severe bleeding. Such symptoms occur if the disease results from a complication of a sexually transmitted infection (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017).

Abdominal and other systemic symptoms are also evident among patients with PID. Gastrointestinal symptoms include reduced appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Bowel discomfort is also present during PID disease (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015). Headache and generalized body weakness are the other symptoms of the disease. On palpation, the abdomen might be tender of indicative of swollen organs in the pelvic cavity. As a result, pelvic examination through radiological studies is essential to determine the organs involved (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017).

Physical Assessment.

The diagnosis of the pelvic inflammatory disease depends on the findings of laboratory tests and the physical or systemic assessment. Physical assessment focus on the visible symptoms of the disease through inspection, palpation, and radiological examination of the organs involved. Analysis of the characteristic of abdominal pain is the priority assessment (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015). The evaluation will focus on the location, nature, and factors that either relieve or precipitate the pain. Palpation of the abdomen focuses on the nature of the ovaries, bladder, and uterus. These three organs can be inflamed or swollen with this condition (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017). Use of and radiological imaging helps to isolate the organs impacted the inflammatory condition hence informing the best approaches to be used in treating the condition. Using laboratory tests and cultures helps to identify the specific agents or bacteria responsible for the inflammatory process hence informing on the choice antibiotic agents to be used for treating the patient (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015).

Clinical Management

Clinical management of pelvic inflammatory disease involves preventive, curative, and rehabilitative approaches. The main goal of these approaches is to eliminate symptoms, present complications, and promote patient recovery and restoration of normal reproductive health. Drug therapy involves of use of antibiotics to treat underlying causes and analgesics to reduce pain (Savaris et al., 2017). Bleeding may result in a significant loss of blood; hence, the patient may be transfused. Normal fluid replacement therapy through intravenous solutions is also recommended. Nursing management usually involves supportive and rehabilitative activities for the patient. Evaluation of the patient for response to drug therapy is another role of nurses in managing patients with PID (Ross, Guaschino, Cusini & Jensen, 2018).Also, nurses monitor patients for disease progress and reaction to medication and take necessary actions to prevent patient. Nurses educate patients and their partners on the importance of having single-sex partners to prevent contraction of the disease. For patients with a history of sexually transmitted infections, temporary abstinence is essential for the patient to promote quick recovery (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015).

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Assignment Details: 

Post a substantive 250- to 400-word response to the

  • Select one of the stories presented in Chasing Zero: Winning the War on Healthcare Harm (Links to an external site.), and research additional background information as necessary.
  • Provide a summary of the story, the errors, and how those errors can be prevented.
  • What strategies can APNs employ to prevent errors and contribute to a culture of patient safety?
  • What challenges in the implementation of continuous quality improvement (CQI) have you observed in your own clinical practice?

Introduction

Chasing Zero: Winning the war on Healthcare Harm is a documentary that  looks at the growing problem of medical errors will providing various ways and ideas  on how the risk could be reduced.  The documentary shows a list of medical errors and how these errors have on a family life as it also describes the way that the families have been affected.  Among the errors is the medical negligence when Dennis and Kimberly Quaid twins were accidentally given Heparin (1,000 times stronger) in the place of Hep-lock, fortunately for them it did not cause death to the lives of the twins (TMIT, 2012).  Also the other error was due to the fact that Heparin and Hep-lock were stored in a similar colored bottle and were also labelled the same way which made it difficult to know the difference (TMIT, 2012). 

From watching the documentary it is evident that some of these errors can be avoided by APNs and promote the culture of patient safety. One of the ways includes improving the old system and processes of administering or labelling medication and coming up with new ones (TMIT, 2012).  For example having a checkbox list is one of the ways that resident surgeons can use to prevent errors. Also the barcode technology is among the safest ways to check for medication safety before administering it. 

One of the challenges that I have observed in the implementation of continuous quality improvement during my clinical practice has been poor coordination between the various departments of patient care (TMIT, 2012).  There is also poor communication between nurses and the system of care which does may promote various medical errors.  It thus important for APNs to educate themselves about problems of patient safety and the potential solutions to improve care within their environment. 


 

References

TMIT. (2012, August 3). Chasing Zero: Winning the War on Healthcare Harm. Retrieved October 17, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtSbgUuXdaw