USE OF HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT OF HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION IN UNITED STATES

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Introduction

This chapter introduces the research methodology. Through this chapter, the researcher is able to outline a number of steps used in the research in order to clearly outline and present the problem and the reasons behind the interventions made towards solving the problem. Research methodology includes; research design, population of the study, sampling frame, sample and sampling technique, data collection instruments, data collection procedure, pilot testing as well as data analysis methods and presentation. This chapter is very essential for research process since it outlines all the necessary requirements and procedures needed for the research to be conducted effectively.

Research Design

Research design is considered to be the plan as well as the structure through which investigations are conducted in order to obtain information intended for answering of the research questions(Kothari, 2012). Conducting this study effectively will require a well-designed research design. This study will adopt a descriptive form of research as its research design.The descriptive research design is very appropriate for this study since it entails the collection of data aimed giving answers on the relationship between health information technology and administration of health care. This will help the researcher have a clear feeling and a clear outline of all the things he is supposed to address on Study population

A population for the study is basically the number of subjects who will be involved in the study process(Kothari, 2012). Study population comprises of individuals who are conforming to some particular specifications which specifically comprises of an entire group of individuals whose the researcher has special interest on them and their research can be generalized. This study population forms a very important part of the research. Through this population, a number of things which the researcher has an interest on can be uncovered by the population under study. The study will focus on the hospitals in the Unites States with representation from each state. A total number of 5 hospitals from each state will be considered as the target population. Target population is used to refer to specific group of individuals who the researcher have a great interest on in order to have them to use them in generalizing conclusions.

Sample and Sampling Technique

A sample is basically considered as a portion or even a subject of a particular research population who are selected in order to be involved or even participate in a given research study(Kothari, 2012). They are usually taken as a representation of the whole study population where a study may be involving a number of individuals and hence need to sample or identify a small group of individuals who are supposed to be directly involved in the study.

This study will adopt stratified sampling technique which is a sampling technique in which population where the sample was drawn from does not constitute a homogenous population. The study will use a sample of 200 health care facilities distributed across the United States. This study will use stratified sampling technique. This sampling technique is essential since the distribution of the healthcare facilities is not homogenous.

Sample size calculations

A number of formulas have been formulated to help in calculation of research samples. These formulas are very effective in determining which formula to use in order to come up with a very accurate sample size to be considered in data collection. The sample size is very essential in ensuring that information is obtained from the right individuals with the right representations.

The sample size will be determined by Nasuirma formula expressed as follows:

n={〖NC_V〗^2}/{〖C_V〗^2+ (N-1)ϵ^2}
Where: n – is the sample size
N – is the target population (205)
C_V-is the coefficient of variation (take 0.5)
ϵ– is the tolerance of desired level of confidence, at 95% level (take 0.05)
n={〖NC_V〗^2}/{〖C_V〗^2+ (N-1)ϵ^2}
= {205 X 0.52}/{0.52 +}(205-1) 〖0.05〗^2}
51.25/ (0.25+0.51)
51.25/0.76 = 67.43
= 67
= 67 respondents

The study sample will be 67 respondents
Therefore, the study will collect data from 67 respondents who will be drawn from different hospitals.

Data Collection Instruments and collection procedures

Data collection instruments are basically the tests, questionnaires, inventories as well as schedules for the interviews or even guides used in rating, surveying as well as obtaining of the information together with the identical items which are obtained from the respondents with a particular focus of gathering enough background information for use in the analysis of the research(Davidson, 2004).

In this research, structured questionnaires with both open-ended and close-ended questions will be used in data collection. The questionnaire will be appropriate for collecting data since it will allow the researcher to gather all the information of that is needed without influencing the respondent. The questionnaire will be distributed to key informants from each health facility. These informants will be required to filled the questionnaires fully and submit them for further analysis.

Pilot Testing

Pilot study is basically a small scale data collection conducted in the study area in order to test the research instruments and determine their validity as well as reliability in respect to the study’s problem(Bricki & Green, 2007). The pilot study will be conducted in the health facilities concentrated in the California States. The pilot study will enhance testing of the research instruments on whether they are effective.

Validity and reliability

According to Kramer-Kile(2012), validity is basically considered as the accuracy as well as the meaningfulness of the references used specifically based on the research results obtained as well as the proper analysis and consideration of the study phenomenon at hand. It is important to have an expert opinion especially on the content as well as the format of the instrument being involved in order to have a proper identification of the ambiguous questions as well as the reliability of the research techniques.

On the other hand, reliability is used to mean the degree of the measure with which the research instruments are able to come up with results especially on the data after a number of repeated trials have been conducted. In order to test on the reliability of the data and the research instruments, a pre-testing of the questionnaire will be conducted form the selected sample of the respondents.

In order to ensure the validity as well as reliability of the instrument used in data collection, expert opinion will be used. It will check on the content as well as the format of the instrument to make sure that questions that are included meeting the objective of the study. A measure of consistency will be used to measure the reliability of the questionnaires. This measure is expressed by a number that is in between 0 and 1.

Data analysis and presentation methods

Data analysis is a process through which the collected information is synthesized into meaningful data with a view to generate as well as have a collection relationship of the data at hand in order to fully understand and conclude on the problem which was under investigation(Williams, 2011). Through data analysis, the situation at hand is fully understood a way forward drawn on what should be done.

Data presentation is a process through which the already analyzed data is presented using bar graphs, pie charts as well as tables in order to fully present and represent the already obtained information(Williams, 2011). This in way ensures a complete communication of the findings in a number of unique ways.

The data collected will be analyzed by use of both quantitative and the qualitative analysis process. Data from the closed and open-ended questionnaire will be coded and analyzed with a statistical package for social science (SPSS). Descriptive analysis such as frequencies as well as the percentages will be used to present qualitative data. Frequency distribution tables, bar graphs, and pie charts will form the main data presentation moderates. Conclusion and recommendations will be drawn from these data presentation forms. In order to test the level of significance of the findings, the study will use NOVA. Correlation will be used to come up with a proper relationship between the variables involved. Regression analysis will be highly used especially in analyzing a number of variables especially where we have both independent variable as well as independent variables in order to have a concrete conclusion of the phenomenon being studied.

References

Bricki, N., & Green, J. (2007).A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology.

Davidson, R. M. (2004). Chapter Three : Research Methodology. City University of Hong Kong, p. 1–20.

Kothari, C. R. (2012). Research Methodology: An introduction.In Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, p. 418.

Kramer-Kile, M. L. (2012). Situating methodology within qualitative research.Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing = Journal Canadien En SoinsInfirmiers Cardio-Vasculaires, 22(4), 27–31.

Williams, J. (2011). What is Research Methodology and Its importance.

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