CHD  Modifiable  risk  factors

CHD Modifiable risk factors

CHD (coronary heart disease) develops due to damage or illness on the coronary arteries. These are the blood vessels supplying the heart with blood, oxygen, and nutrients.

Modifiable risk factors are the conditions that increase the risk of disease, but it is possible to take measures and change them. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol is the primary causes CHD by causing plaque to build up and narrow the coronary arteries. The blockage decreases the flow of the blood to the heart.

These risk factors contribute to the accumulation of bad cholesterol and increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

1. Unhealthy diet

An unhealthy diet increases the risk of CHD if the types of food that someone takes have a high content of saturated and Trans fats or raise the levels of LDL cholesterol. Limiting these foods reduces the risk of clogging the coronary arteries. Foods with high content of salt (sodium) and added sugars increase the risk of high blood pressure which is a cause of heart problems. Added sugars provide extra calories without essential nutrients like minerals and vitamins. These can cause gaining of excess weight that increases the risk of CHD. Many desserts, fruit drinks, canned fruits in syrup and non-diet sodas contain added sugars.

2. Smoking

Tobacco smoking or long-term exposure to the smoke is dangerous to the heart. It raises the risk of CHD and a heart attack. The reason is that smoking triggers the accumulation of plaque in the arteries and the risk of a blood clot forming in the vessels. Blood clots can block narrowed arteries due to the presence of plate and even trigger a heart attack. Smoking also lowers the levels of good (HDL) cholesterol which is essential in clearing LDL thus increase the risk of CHD because plaque builds up without control. The risk increases by smoking more cigarettes, but it is something that smokers can reduce after quitting smoking even if they have been in this practice for a long time.

The risk begins decreasing soon after someone stops tobacco and continues reducing over time.

3. Sedentary lifestyle

Failing to engage in physical activity increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease twofold than in those who are physically active. Lack of physical activity might also worsen other CHD causes such as diabetes high blood pressure, obesity and blood cholesterol. It is essential for people of all ages including the children to create a routine of engaging in physical activity. The reason that makes people inactive is that they spend much time doing deskbound jobs while their leisure activities are things they do while sitting such as watching TV or playing computer games. Some experts recommend that children should not spend more than two hours a day relaxing in front of a computer or television monitor because it is making many to become obese.

Physically active life is one of the most helpful things in keeping the heart healthy. The good news is that physical activity doe not needs to be intensive as even modest activities such as walking still contribute to good health. Nonetheless, more physical activity increases the benefits.

4. Overweight and Obesity

Overweight and obesity are terms that refer to higher body weight than the accepted level for specific gravity. The excess weight causes the body to strain by requiring for more cardiac workload at a given level of activity to fulfill the body requirements for oxygen. An obese or overweight person is at more risk of getting CHD or heart attack because the unnecessary weight tolerates the existence of these other CHD risk factors:

  • High blood cholesterol
  • High blood lipids especially the high triglycerides
  • Blood pressure
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Impaired glucose tolerance or the type-2 diabetes

Obesity and excess weight can also increase the risk of heart failure in combination with excess weight and enlargement of the left ventricular hypertrophy.Modifiable risk factors are things that everyone can avoid and keep coronary heart disease at bay.