venom derived drugs

venom derived drugs
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Creepy crawlers scare humans, and they either run or kill anything that has more than 4 legs, glistening eyes, exhibits a stinger or protruding fangs. However, science has a different story because it shows that that venomof the natural world hasa potential for safe medicinal treatments and cures but after harvesting.

Researchers have investigated and found venom from spiders and other animals has therapeutic effects for a variety of poisons from insect and animal bites. When put into the right use, the poisons that can kill have properties that help to save the lives.


A study by the University of Buffalo found that spider venom contains a protein that can treat muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is an umbrella term for several diseases that cause loss of muscle mass leading to inability to move, walk or even swallow. The study found the protein helps to stop muscle cells from deteriorating. Though it was not a complete cure on its own, it assists to slow down the disease from progressing.

Tarantulas spiders harbor healing properties in the venom. Yale University had a screening process called "toxineering" that can sift through millions of spider toxins to find those with most compatibility to painkiller drugs. Researchers found thatPeruvian green velvet tarantula has a toxin that can block chronic pain. Another recent study found that venom of spider has seven different compounds that can help to relieve chronic pain. Analysis of 206 different spider species shows that 40% of the poisons have compounds that block nerve activity relating to chronic pain.

Researchers also have a reason to believe that further development of spider venoms might lead to treatments for spinal cord damage, cardiac arrhythmias, and erectile dysfunction.The need to study venom’s ability to cure erectile dysfunction is as a result of a long-lasting erection that a South American developed after a bite by spider called “armed spider.”


Snake venom has been a subject of scientific study for decades, and it has medicinal properties. Most have antibacterial and painkiller features. Snake venom has hem toxins that target the circulatory system and specifically attack the clotting ability as well as the muscles. Scientists found that they could use hemotoxins in medicine to treat blood disorders and heart attacks.

Scientists have some Tunisian vipers show that they have anti-tumor properties. Other drugs developed from neurotoxins in snakes’ venom are for treating these conditions that affect the brain:

  • Parkinson’s
  • Stroke
  • Alzheimer’s
  • Brain injuries

Scorpions’ stingers release venom that they use to inject a prey for it to paralyze or die. Scorpion venom has compounds that treat autoimmune conditions that develop because the body loses itsability to regulate some controls of the immune system that then attacks the body tissues.

Scorpion venom has compounds that can stop this reaction by inhibiting potassium channels in the cells to prevent inflammation. The ability by scorpion venom to interact with sodium channels makes it have painkiller properties. Additionally, it helps to develop a tumor paint that identifies brain cancer and lights it up by making the infected cells to glow for doctors to notice them.

Sea creatures

Many of the sea creatures such as anemones have venom that they use for defense capturing their prey and protection against predators. Their poison has a mix that harbors potential treatments and cures for disease. Sea anemones and core snails produce toxins that can treat autoimmune diseases like lupus, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis.


Chinese redhead centipede that injects their prey with venom to paralyze by blocking a sodium channel protein has effects similar to morphine hence can work as a painkiller.

The ironical thing is that the properties that make venom to be deadly are also the same thing that makes them valuable for medicine. Most of the venom toxins target the same molecules that treatment tries to control and manage the disease. Venom work quickly and is extremely specific. Its active components (peptides and proteins that work as toxins and enzymes) target particular molecules. They fit into the molecules well like keys into locks.

Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research
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University of Rochester Medical Center researchers found out that loss of muscle stem cells is a core reason behind the decline of muscle. These findings challenge current belief that age-related muscle decline occurs because of failure of the motor neurons.

The findings show the reason that makes stem cells to be unique in regenerative therapy. A stem cell divides to stay in the current form or become another type such as a brain or nerve cell. Stem cells can with directing help to treat specific tissues and cell types that enable treating of diseases such as spinal cord injury, heart disease or stroke.

Cumulative effects of genetics, environmental impacts and longtime wear and tear on the bodies take a toll to cause health problems. These effects over time damage and kill the cells. Slow replacement of adult cells means inadequate compensation for the loss, and it is this time that signs of ageing start appearing together with health issues that impair the normal functioning of the body.

Ageing cells contribute to disease. It will be simple to cure or control many diseases by preventing, slowing down or even reversing cell ageing. Stem cell and related regenerative medicine therapies are ways with much potential for solutions to many life problems that cause ageing.

Stem cells are the building blocks of the bodies. Their ability evolves, duplicate, change and adapt to other cell types is the essence of body regeneration. Stem cells stay dormant in the fat stores and bone marrow waiting for signals that trigger their movement after damage to proteins in the immune system. They scrutinize damaged area and determine the specific form of cell necessary for healing.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of easy to extract adult stem cell without causingmuch controversy like embryonic stem cells. MSCs are a useful treatment for various pathological disorders and conditions such as heart disease or cancer. These stem cells are one of the core factors in the regeneration of skin muscle, bone, cartilage andmuscle. This regeneration helps to prevent ageing.

Anti-Ageing Stem Cell Treatment

Stem cell therapies are the last anti-ageing treatment. They are unique because specialists can harvest stem cells for a patient and transplant them when needed. Cell treatments replenish the body with a fresh supply of concentrated stem cells that allows a repair and rejuvenation process in all the organs including the skin. Human skin is essential because it is the most obvious indicator of youthfulness or age.

Use of cell provides a better outcome than plastic surgery that addresses the looks. Cell treatment solves the cause. It triggers adult stem cells to replace, grow, repair and rejuvenate at a cellular level which beyond mere appearances. Adult stem cells restore youthful looks of energy. It also resolves age-relating damage to the face, organs and full body.

Anti-aging therapy improves overall health, the function of organs and strength. It also enhances the cells to make the recipient younger and robust. Energetic cell improves overall body function allowing a person to feel more youthful and become more active again. Anti-aging cell treatment causes impressive results in all the age groups regardless of gender or ethnicity.

Anti-aging stem cell treatment Procedure

The organization that regulates running of medical and health matters such as FDA are yet to issue a blanket approval for anti-aging stem cell treatment but still openly research and provision of scientific research. Reputable treatment centers follow the guidelines by manipulating MSCs only minimally. They treat patients by following this procedure.

Harvesting stem cells from a patient and return themas quickly as possible.

  • Stem cell therapy specialists examine, address the areas of concern and evaluate the right treatment
  • Harvesting of adipose tissue and put through centrifugation to separate and increase the concentration of the MSCs.
  • Injecting the serum back to the patient soon after processing. Some cases need precision placement, and therapists can use an ultrasound-guided injection.

Anti-aging cell treatment takes only a few hours without downtime. It causes moderate discomfort at the site of harvest and re-injection but rarely requires pain medication. Patients can perform normal activities soon after treatment. A single infusion is enough for most people, but some need two or three within a year. Adult stem cells release rate begin dropping by 45% at the age of 35 till it reaches 90% at 65.

Adult stem cells are much essential at this age to help in fighting various age relating infections. Slow release of adult stem cells slows down everything such as recovery from illness, injury and daily activity. Stem cell circulation in children is 100%, and it is the reason they heal quickly and have more energy.

It is essential to address the inefficiency in the release of adult stem cells from bone marrow as it is part of the reasons for aging.

Do female athletes have more trouble getting pregnant later on?

Do  female  athletes  have  more  trouble  getting  pregnant  later  on?
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Exercises are one of the essential ways of staying healthy, and it would be surprised to many to hear that extensive exercising such as that by female athletes can make it difficult to conceive. Female athletes are more like to have this problem yet manywomen admire them for their physical fitness and would not expect them to have health challenges.

How exercises affect conceiving

  • Higher levels of vigorous work out among normal-weight women might make it harder to conceive leading to delays in getting pregnant
  • Any type of exercise improves fertility among overweight women and moderate exercise
  • Moderate exercise leads to getting pregnant quickly among all women
  • Only extremely vigorous exercise such as running, gymnastics, swimming or fast cycling for over five hours a week seems to delay fertility in the normal weight women.

What Causes Female Athletes to Have Trouble Getting Pregnant

These are the issues that make it difficult for women of normal weight to get pregnant if they engage in extensive exercises.

1. Reduced fat cells

When preparing to get pregnant or compete in athletics, the body requires more fat stores to be in an optimal range. This might be the reason when lean women who engage in vigorous exercise too much take longer to conceive. About five hours of exercising a week are too much intense exercise should only take four minutes two to three times a week. This moment of work out for a female athlete is too short. They must work out extremely hard and for a longer time to improve endurance and be at the top shape to compete. Running on a treadmill for just an hour five days of the week makes it harder to conceive yet some athletes run for more than this period.

2. Disturbance of the monthly exercise

It has been clear for long that strenuous exercise may cause disturbances to the monthly cycle causing lack of ovulation and menses. It also caused fertility problems. These issues are common among the competitive female athletes and severe in marathon runners. A study by an associate professor of epidemiology at Boston University School of Public Health, Lauren Wise suggests that high-intensity exercise may also disturb implantation. Implantation takes place when a fertilized egg attaches itself to the uterus.

3. Energy deficit

An energy deficit occurs when the energy intake does not meet the requirements .metabolism of the stored energy in the form of body fat, glycogen and protein accounts for the deficit. The reproduction system is extremely sensitive to energy deficit, and it might not perform optimally to allow conception. It might be a good reason because the body attempts to conserve energy by shutting down some systems like the reproduction.

Reaction to energy deficit works like the way female bodies were acting during ancient age during a famine. The reproductive system would turn off after walking for long to gather bare minimum calories. The turning helped in survival by preventing reproduction until the body accesses adequate uninterrupted energy as it indicates there are enough resources for feeding children.

Exercises among women have much benefits to overall health, well-being and competition fitness for professional athletes. The development of an energy deficiency because of inadequate energy intake to compensate for the exerciseenergy expenditure and this might lead to menstrual dysfunction. It is now clear that stress of the exercise does not cause reproductive dysfunction but an attempt of conserving energy. Metabolic adaptations reacting to an energy deficiency alter a normal production and reproduction hormones at all the levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis.

Estrogen and progesterone concentrations decline as a reaction to energy deficiency leading to a spectrum of exercise associated with menstrual disturbance (EAMD). A spectrum of EAMD includes:

  • Severe menstrual disturbances
  • Oligomenorrhea
  • Amenorrhea

You can detect EAMD spectrum by lack of menses for months, at least three. Long, inconsistent cycles of 36-90 days are also a sign of EAMD.

4. Luteal phase dysfunction

A regular luteal phase is 12 to 14 days, but an energy deficit will reduce it. A woman will have regular ovulatory menstrual cycle although the luteal phase will be 10 or fewer days. Short lutealphases often accompany prolonged follicular phases. Someone can have a 28-day cycle with 21-day follicular phase and a luteal phase of 7 days. Luteal phase defects diminish the chances of conceiving.

Female athletes should engage in short engage in short bursts of strenuous exercises, have appropriate intervals and consume enough calories to prevent energy deficit if that want to avoid having trouble getting pregnant.

Do we need to continue embryonic stem cell research or will adult stem cells work just as well?

Do  we  need  to  continue  embryonic  stem  cell  research  or  will  adult  stem  cells  work  just  as  well?
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A stem cell is a type with a capacity to produce other cells that develop into any form. There is an ongoing debate questioning the need to continue with embryonic stem cell research or adult stem cells work just as well. Such a discussion should create an interest to understand the composure and capabilities of both. Embryonic stem cells are got from embryos thus generating a lot of ethical controversy and discussion.

Embryonic stem cells are unspecialized cells with the ability to:

  • Differentiate into specialized cells with some specific functions
  • Self –renew for long periods

Adult stem cells are those isolated from an adult tissue sample that contains stem cells including:

  • Bone marrow
    • Skin
      • Blood vessels
        • Brain
          • Skeletal muscle
            • Liver

            Adult stem cells have been the most examined in humans and animal models. They do not court more controversy than embryonic cells but scientists question whether mature stem cells initially are from immature or another source of stem cells. Research has been going for many years as scientists attempt to determine whether embryonic and adult stem cells have similar capabilities. Studies consistently reveal new information and the hope is that therapeutic applications can develop from both sources.

            Reasons to Continue Embryonic Stem Cell Research

            1.Potential for development

            Embryonic stem cells are more versatile and flexible than the adult stem cells. Embryonic stemcells potential for differentiation is far more significant because they can develop to almost all types of cells in on a human body. The number of cell types that adult stem cells can grow into is limited. Their potential is lower than that of embryonic cells. Newer studies are suggesting that adult stem cells might have greater plasticity than what has been in the limelight. It means that they might have the capacity to differentiate to a greater range of specialized types of cells. It might be encouraging, but it appears embryonic stem cells still got an advantage to separate more than the adult stem cells.


            Embryonic stem cells proof to be more viable because they divide and reproduce more after placement in a culture. Adult cells inthe similar environment do not multiply this readily. The level of difficulty varies between the two types. Embryonic stem cells are simple to grow in a laboratory, but adult stem cells do not develop as easily after isolation from the mature adult tissues. Stem cell replacement therapies require a large number of cells and difficulty in growing adult cells limits their use for treatment.

            3. Effects on the recipient's immune system

            Adult stem cells have a distinct advantage for immune system because the process involves identifying, isolating, growing and transplanting patient’s cell. The immune system cannot reject cells because they already have compatibility with the person’s body. Embryonic stem cells carry a potential for rejection. A recipient should take strong immune-suppressing drugs that combat the rejection of new cells. It also puts patients at risk for microscopic diseases that might be present in transplanted cells and other conditions that might be present in a hospital environment.

            4. A possibility of DNA mutations

            Adult stem cells are more likely to gain abnormalities from DNA mutations that might occur due to various factors. Chances that'young' embryonic stem will carry mutations are lesser. Their young nature also enables them to regenerate quickly than the adult stem cells. 5.Ethics

            Adult stem cells come from adult tissues with consent from the patients. They have minimal if any ethical dilemma because doctors inform patients about the procedure. Embryonic stem cells trigger enormous debate because the harvesters destruct an embryo is cell extraction. Embryo destruction has become part of abortion debate creating massive controversy between the politicians, religious leaders and public.

            Recent evidence is showing that adult stem cellshave more potential than what people have been thinking means that scientists should continue researching about them alongside embryonic stem cells. It is possible that researchers might discover new ways of developing adult stem cells more successfully and improving their functioning after transplantation into a human body.

What are the uses of stem cells?

What  are  the  uses  of  stem  cells?
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Stem cells are body cells that can divide and differentiate. Stem cells specialize as an organism grows to take specific functions. For instance, these mature tissues all have a different type of cells.

  • Skin
  • Blood
  • Muscle
  • Liver
  • Bone
  • Nerves

Stem cells can serve different purposes, and all of them are essential. Many stem cells can with the right stimulation take the role of another type of cell and under the right conditions can regenerate damaged tissue. This potential might save lives and allow repairs necessary for healing after an injury or illness. Scientists have many possible uses for stem cells including:

1. Tissue regeneration

Tissue regeneration could be the essential use of the stem cells. Before doctors knew about this ability of the stem cells, patients who required a kidney transplant had to wait till they got a donor with compatible kidneys. Another example of regeneration ability is when doctors use stem cells they derive beneath a skin surface to make skin tissue anew. They can use the new tissue to repair a severe injury or burn by grafting it onto the damaged skin for a new one to grow.

2. Replacement of damaged cells and treatment

Some medical facilities have already successfully used stem cells to treat extensive burns to restore the blood system in patients with blood disorders like leukemia. Stem cells also may have a key to the replacement of lost cells in other devastating diseases that currently do not have sustainable cures. For instance, donated organs and tissues can replace damaged tissue. However, the need for transplantable tissues or organs outweighs the available supply by far.

Stem cells are a possible renewable resource of replacement tissues for treating diseases with proper directing to differentiate them into specific types of cells. You can use in this manner to treat diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson's, stroke and heart conditions. It is an exciting prospect but has many significant hurdles that only years of intensive research can overcome.

3. Provide a resource to test new medical treatments

Stem cells provide a way of testing new medications for safety. Scientists use specialized cells that stem cell lines generate in large numbers to reduce the need for animal testing. Some kinds of cell lines are already in use for testing. A good example is the used of cancer lines to screen potential anti-tumor drugs.

Researchers are also testing ways in which doctors can one day use replacement cells and tissues for treating brain diseasessuch as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Parkinson’s disease occurs due to dame of the brain cells leading to uncontrollable movements. Stem cells are helping scientist to define a procedure for replenishing damage to the brain tissue. It might replace the brain cells that prevent uncontrolled muscle movements. Researchers are currently trying to differentiate embryonic cells into movement controlling cells thus treatments are promising.

4. Blood disease treatments

Doctors are now routinely using adult hematopoietic stem cells for treating diseases such as sickle cell anemia, leukemia, and other immunodeficiency problems. Hematopoietic stem cells occur in bone marrow and blood. The can produce all types of blood cells including those that fight disease or carry oxygen.

5.Studying development

Stem cells have clues that allow understanding of the way that complex organism develops from a fertilized egg. Scientists working in a lab can follow stem cells while they begin dividing to become increasingly specialized to make skin, brain, bone and other types of cell. Identifying signals mechanisms and signals that determine if stem cells choose to continue replicating itself or differentiating into a specialized or another kind of cell helps to learn the things that control normal development.

Some of the severe medical conditions like congenital disabilities and cancer occur due to an abnormal division and differentiation of the cell. A better understanding of the molecular and genetic controls of these processes might yield information to identify the way such diseases arise and new strategies for therapy.

Research is one of the essential goals of stem cell research. It is difficult in many cases to find the damaged cells during an illness for an in detail study. Stem cells that carry disease gene or made to contain disease genes provide a viable option to model disease processes in a lab and better understand the things that might have gone wrong.

What are the different types of stem cells?

What are the different types of stem cells?
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Stem cells are the natural reservoir of the body that replenishes specialized cells after use ordamage. Stem cells are at always at work inside the bone marrow inside us making the 100,000 new blood cells that we need each day. The body needs new cells all the time to keep functioning, but some of those that are specialized like muscle or blood cells cannot make copies through cell division. They instead rely on populations of stem cells for replenishment. Stem cells have a unique ability to produce their copies (self-renewal) and other speculated cells (differentiation) each time they divide.

Stem cells might turn to any type before they differentiate into these types.

Types of stem cells

1. Adult stem cells

The body of a person contains stems cells that develop throughout life. The body can use these stem cells each time it needs .they are also called somatic or tissue-specific stem cells, and they exist in the body from the time that an embryo develops.These cells are not in any specific state because of more specialization than the embryonic stems cells. The stay in this state until the body requires them for a particular purpose like replenishing muscle or skin cells.Adult stem cells might come from different parts ofan adult body, but they are specific to a certain kind of body tissue. For instance, liver stem cells might regenerate liver tissue, and muscles stem cells can only regenerate muscle fibers.They cannot change and renew tomake different body tissue.

2.Embryonic stem cells

An embryo forms from the time that a sperm fertilizes an egg. An embryo takes the form of a ball of cells or Blastocyst around 3-5 days after fertilization. These are the most versatile stem cells as they can build any type of cell in the body.

The blastocyst has stem cells and later implants in the womb. Embryonic stem cells develop when a Blastocyst becomes 4-5 days old.Stem cells that scientists take from embryos are usually an extra embryo after in vitro fertilization.Doctors inan IVF clinic fertilize many eggs in a test tube to be sure that at least one will survive and then implant some eggs for a pregnancy to start.

Cells combine when a sperm successfully fertilizes an egg to form one cell called a zygote.A single-celled zygote becomes anembryo when it starts dividing by forming cells in twos such as 2, 4, 8and so on. When and before an embryo implants in the womb, itis called a Blastocyst that has a mass of 150-200 cells. A Blastocyst has these two parts:

  • An outer cell mass that later becomes part of a placenta
  • An inner cell mass. It develops into a human body

Embryonic cells can differentiate to more cell types than the adult stem cells.

3.Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

MSCs come from connective tissue surrounding the organs of the body and other tissues. Scientists use MSCs to create new body tissues such as fat cells, cartilage, and bone.They might one be a solution to various health problems.

4.Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)

These stem cells are artificial because scientists create them in a lab with skin and other tissue-specific cells. Their behavior is similar to the embryonic stem cells for them to enable users to develop a range of therapies. However, more research is still necessary despite their extensive use. Scientists grow iPS stem cells by first extracting samples from an embryo oradult tissue. They then place the harvested cells in a controlled culture where they divide and reproduce but without specializing further.

The name for stem cells that divide and reproduce in a controlled culture is a stem-cell line. Researchers have different purposes for managing and sharing stem-cell lines.They can even stimulate stem cells to specialize in a certain way by a process that is called directed differentiation. Reprogramming stem cells when creating iPSCs will involve genetic manipulation that might cause some differences that are not in the cells that already are embryonic.

Stem cell research is still an area with much to learn that requires exploration of various avenues.

Is there a better way of making a flu vaccine?

Is  there  a  better  way  of  making  a  flu  vaccine?
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The World Health Organization (WHO) makes a gamble every year when developing a flu virus. They try to determine the flu viruses that will dominate. WHO vaccine makers get two chances one for each hemisphere, but effectiveness only reaches a certain per cent such as 10% in Australia.

A vaccine that is 10 per cent effective does not mean that it is also 90 per cent useless. A percentage shows the extent to which a shot reduces the risk of getting a disease but is not a reflection of how much it can help to ward off the extremely severe symptoms. A mismatched vaccine still gives an advantage when the body faces an influenza virus, but it makes it crucial for everyone to receive a shot. Highly effective vaccinations are necessary because inoculated persons are unlikely to contract flu thus the number of those who require it will be lower.

A Better Way of Making an Effective Flu Vaccine

Animal cell-based vaccine

The cell-based vaccine is still a new method that provides an alternative to develop a flu vaccine in the egg. People who are allergic to eggs get a different shot that grows in animal cells instead of an egg, and it does seem to get problematic mutations.

Cell.-based vaccine first began in the eggs, and it had similar issues to the standard vaccine in 2016 -2017season. Beginning in 2018, U.S developed a cell-based vaccine that scientists only grew in animal cells. It will still require the gathering of more analytical data at the end of flu season, but this vaccine might be the most effective than the originating egg vaccine because it does not have challenges of mutation.

It could in future be a much better way of making flu vaccine. It is also faster because it does not require the gathering of fresh eggs every season. Animal cells are useful to use for many seasons after freezing during the off-season and thwacking them when needed.

Why Cell-Based Flu Vaccine Is Better Than Standard Egg-Cell Shots

Most of the flu shots developers grow them inside egg cells. Eggs provide a suitable home for replicating the viruses and simple to work with because they have been in use for many years. People with egg allergies get a different shot. Everyone else except this small subpopulation has been thinking that the production of the vaccines follows an acceptable method. The recent research suggests viruses that grow in the eggs undergo a crucial change that makes resulting vaccines less effective.

Human bodies identification of flu is based on a crucial part of a virus called hemagglutinin. HA isan antigen and the bit of the virus that immune cells can bind to. A vaccine trains the immune system to identify specific antigens by growing a virus inside the living cells, inactivating it and collecting antigens. The immune system becomes ready to fight the infection off if you contract a virus because these antigens are similar to those in the shot. You must rump up the defense further if the antigens are different as it allows a virus to have time for taking over the body.

HA mutates when the H3N2 strain of flu grows in eggs to allow better replication by the virus in its new environment. This method confirms that laboratories are producing flu vaccine base it on a mutated version of the virus. Later observation of the flu in circulation and comparing it to reference that developers used for vaccine might show like they got it right. Nonetheless, the reality is that a lab starts with a virus that is not the same to that which finally goes into the shot. Prediction of the strains might be right but the efficiency even at this time is 40-60 per cent.

The differences explain why the flu strains might mutate the same way in egg cells but H3N2 is often a predominant strain. The use mutations in H3N2 strain for vaccine explains situations like that of Australia having a vaccine with 10 per cent efficiency and an awful flu season.

Cell-based flu vaccine technology has been using for a while although many pharmaceutical companies are hesitant to change because a fundamental change in manufacturing vaccines is expensive. The demand is also still lower, but if it turns out to be a better vaccine, pharmaceutical companies will have a motivation to change to non-egg vaccine option.

What is the possibility of finding a cure for cystic fibrosis?

What is the possibility of finding a cure for cystic fibrosis?
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that reduces the ability of the secretory glands. Secretory glands control production of mucus and sweat but CF causes a buildup up of these secretions in the lungs. They block the airways and create a fertile ground for bacteria to grow. The condition causes severe and recurrent lung infections.

Additionally, CF also affects other vital body organs such as the pancreas and the liver. It might also affect the sinuses, intestines and reproductive organs. Cystic fibrosis is a complex disease to understand because it is an inherited condition that cans a make a child to carry the gene but may have or contract this disorder. Scientists are yet to find a cure and the available solutions are for managing the infection. However, these studies provide hope of finding a cure for cystic fibrosis.

Gene therapy

Research on gene therapy viability to treat lung diseases that occur due to CF shows two virus-based vectors can restore working of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein that is faulty in cystic fibrosis patients. Researchers working on CF pigs showed that gene replacement normalizes important aspects of lung biology and improves ability by airway secretions to kill bacteria.Their report is compelling proof of the idea that gene therapy can sort our CF because the researchers got their findings by testing on animal models that develop lung disease like human beings.

A defective gene in CF carries a code for CFTR protein regulating the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. An alteration of this protein is the cause of thick and sticky mucus that characterize the presence of CF.

Gene therapy is a replacement of a defective gene with one that is normal to allow it to play its natural value. The challenge of gene therapy is the limitations of replacing the defective gene. It is a long process the human body has 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes, and CF is only in chromosome 7. It requires the use of vectors (gene delivery vehicles) that contain corrected gene. Replacing the defective gene in a cell is also not enough because CF affects many cells thus requires many vectors to get them to appropriate places.

Thymosin alpha 1(Tα1)

Tα1 is a synthetic version of the natural polypeptide that was isolated from thymus tissue which has a role in immunity. Tα1 corrects inflammation and also corrects genetic defects. Tα1 has a double benefit to CF patients. It reduces inflammation that CF causes improve activity, stability and maturity of CFTR.

Cystic fibrosis occurs due to a mutation in the genetic code of CFTR protein that regulates the activity of the chloride channel that balances water and salt in the lungs. The name of this mutation in CF is p.Phe508del and it reduces chloride permeability that might cause lung inflammation. Researchers on CF treatment found that complex pathogen mechanisms that cause it to require a therapeutic approach that will combine several drugs. There is no single drug to deal with multiple effects, but a study report on Tα1 shows it can correct defects of cells in human patients with p.Phe508del mutation.

The current study on Tα1 shows that it reduces inflammation and immune tolerance in vitro and cystic fibrosis mouse model. It also improves the stability of mutant CFTR. Further studies also show that Tα1 can rescue CFTR protein and rescue p.Phe508del-CFTR in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and mice in the study. Intravenousadministration of Tα1corrects misfolded protein that occurs because of this mutation inhibiting cell ability to regulate the chlorine ions.

The researchers note that corrector activity of Tα1 is yet to get verification in human studies, but it might soon get approval for clinical trials because of cost efficiency and safety profile of Zadaxin in both adults and children. The studies will help to determine the possible pulmonary and extrapulmonary benefits in people with cystic fibrosis.

These treatments are not a real cure but are significant steps towards treatment for patients with cystic fibrosis to allow them to experience a disease-free life.

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Nurses spend a lot of time with their patients as it is part of their healthcare system. It is part of their job as they get lots of opportunities in observing and monitoring patients to see how they are faring and spot problems early. Understanding how to asses a patient’s wellbeing i.e. checking his or her pressure and temperature is part of her daily routine. Undertaking this career often leaves nurses with lots of questions. Many are not always content with their selves as it is a process which requires deep preparations and the right attitude for the job. Nurses are in demand for their services in many healthcare centers. It is also evident because many schools require admission letters of purpose before joining. Nursing skills are vital in preparing yourself for a future of serving and caring for others by learning and acquiring upon the skills and characteristics needed to succeed on the job. Many clinical skills are important that will help you achieve greater strides in your career.

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For one to be admitted to the nursing field, critical skills are vital to employing in your everyday life situations. Crucial decisions need to be met and solved on the spot as it always a matter of life and death. Showing confidence and quickly mitigating the issue is necessary to the nursing profession field.

3. Flexibility

Nurses often meet surprises in their daily operations. Emergency situations are constant in their day to day operations. Many nurses should be able to juggle the strenuous schedules that they have. Showing the capability to adapt to the evolving schedules is imperative to them succeeding. Apart from acquiring skills, nursing must constantly attend remedial classes or go back to books to improve their nursing skills. as the world continues to evolve so is the emergence of new medications and diseases that should have them prepared for the rest of their careers.

There are multiple sources for improving nursing skills. resources help improve a nurse’s competency in the profession and provides an overview of procedures or the desired outcomes that need communication with the patient’s family. Nurses can also improve their skillsets by acquiring additional resources that include resources covering a wide range of topics that relate to their communication skills, critical thinking skills and about drug information.

Enhancement of your clinical skills also includes accessing drug information and also knowing those that contain precautions, side effects before administering them to patients. Another way of enhancing your skillset is by continuing to work on education modules that will help expand their knowledge capacity and thinning areas. Having a broad scope of knowledge is beneficial to one’s career. Many diseases are emerging in this fast-paced moving healthcare environment. One can increase their skills with additional resources that includes going through research information’s found in clinical libraries and textbooks covering a wide range of topics. Nurses can greatly improve their skills through resources which focus on many areas of clinical nursing that include patient care, technical, nursing, communication, and critical thinking skills as stated above.

Health and Human Ecology Research Paper

Human ecology is a sub-discipline in ecology which focuses on humans. It is the study of the relationships of humans with natural, social and other environments.A Health and human ecology research paper is written by a students in the field of medicine, and it involves researching on the topic, then crafting a quality research paper on the same. No student graduates without writing a quality research paper. Since quality research paper writing is always important, students should ensure they research reliably well on the research paper topics in question. Tutors will never give grades for shoddy work, therefore, students must ensure they research comprehensively on their papers.


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Research and writing are very demanding tasks, and getting the time to effect these processes is a challenge to a good number of students. This is why it is important for any student who is busy, or who simply lacks the writing experience called for to get help from online writing help providers. There are competent writing help providers which will craft any student an authentic Health and human ecology research paper. Students should however understand that it is only a full fledged writing company which will give them the best papers.


Nursing Writing Servicesis a competent writing company which will craft you the best Health and human ecology research paper. We have been writing for long to understand the writing standards we must match all through. Every client gets a competent paper done according to instructions given. We also have a competent client support staff which can be reached at by any client regardless of the time of the day. Our unique 24 hour free chat service will be open to all clients.


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The writers we select must be professionals who have built an admirable reputation in the medical field. And who have enough background on nursing management.

We offer our clients free unlimited research paper revisions to their satisfaction

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Yes. You can contact our support team and request for the draft. Make sure you request for the draft early enough.

We normally follow the client’s instructions. The client is allowed to select the topics they want us to include in the research paper or they can allow us to include the relevant topics ourselves.

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developmental disability nursing research paper

Developmental disability refers to a certain cognitive and, or physical impairment occurring to humans in the early stages of life. It is a permanent impairment which can also occur to anyone below 18 years of age.A developmental disability nursing research paper is an academic paper written by student doing nursing as a course. The student will simply be required to craft a competent paper on this topic.


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The best crafted research paper will get a student positive grades. This is because tutors will want a strong demonstration through competent writing that the student in question has grasped what they learn in class. As a student, you should understand that crafting an authentic developmental disability nursing research paper will require you to conduct research earnestly. Outstanding essays will get positive grades, because tutors are knowledgeable intellectuals. Information should also be gotten from reliable sources.

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If you are a student who can not get ample time to craft a research paper, or if writing experience escapes you, get help. There are multiple online writing companies with the capability of crafting you a quality developmental disability nursing research paper, provided you choose the best. Top quality writing companies will provide you with papers of high standard, and before you trust any company with your paper, check its authenticity. Nursing Writing Servicesis a quality writing service provider. We guarantee clients authentic research papers because we are well exposed in writing to understand the writing standards we must match all through. We have a competent client support staff, and a unique 24 hour free chat service, which is open to any client. Your custom developmental disability nursing research paper will be done according to instructions given and submitted to beat any submission deadlines.


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Yes it is possible. You can communicate with the writer working on your essay and inform them of any further instructions or changes

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