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nurs 6501 Final exam questions

  1. In infectious mononucleosis (IM), what does the Monospot test detect?
  2. A healthcare professional had taught a pregnant woman about the risk of transmitting herpes simplex virus (HSV) from her to her fetus. What statement by the woman indicates the professional needs to provide more information?
  3. What is the link between major depression and cortisol secretion?
  4. The health care professional is caring for a person who has a pathologic fracture. The patient asks the professional to explain the condition. What response by the professional is best?
  5. What is the primary pathologic alteration resulting from ankylosing spondylitis (AS)?
  6. Which medical diagnosis is described as a chronic inflammatory joint disease?
  7. A patient is in status epilepticus. In addition to giving medication to stop the seizures, what would the healthcare professional place highest priority on?
  8. A student reads in a chart that a baby was born with an encephalocele. The student asks the healthcare professional to explain this condition. What explanation by the healthcare professional is best?
  9. A woman who is positive for hepatitis B is in labor. What action by the healthcare professional is most appropriate?
  10. A patient is in the Emergency Department with heat stroke. What finding does the healthcare provider associate with this condition?
  11. Local signs and symptoms of Hodgkin disease-related lymphadenopathy are a result of what?
  12. What causes the vasomotor flushes (hot flashes) that are associated with declining ovarian function with age?
  13. Gait disturbances and instability are characteristic of which form of cerebral palsy? 
  14. Which bones are affected in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease?
  15. A baby is born with a myelomeningocele and needs urgent surgery to repair the defect. The parents want to take the baby home instead. What does the healthcare professional tell the parents about the purpose of this surgery? 
  16. A  question about the cause paralysis
  17. A child has osteosarcoma and the healthcare team is assessing for metastases. What diagnostic study would be the priority? 
  18. What congenital malformation is commonly linked to acute leukemia in children?
  19. What is the role of thromboxane A (TXA 2) in the secretion stage of hemostasis?
  20. A question about why iboprufen good for primary dysmenorrheal
  21. A 9-year-old child has a blood pressure of 112/72 mmHg in the school nurse's office. What action by the school nurse is most appropriate? 
  22. Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma?
  23. A question why lymph nodes enlarge and become tender during infection 
  24. A healthcare professional has taught a parent group about the causes of enuresis. What statement by a parent indicates the professional needs to give more information? 
  25. A question about vaccine against cervical cancer
  26. A question about jaundice that accompanies hemolytic anemia and Erythrocytes
  27. A person has abnormally severe tooth decay and erosion of the tooth enamel. What problem should the health care professional assess the person for? 
  28. A child has Duchenne muscular dystrophy. What complication does the healthcare professional teach the parents is most important to control?
  29. Which spinal tract carries the most nociceptive information?
  30. Clinical manifestations that include irregular or heavy bleeding, the passage of large clots, and the depletion of iron stores support which diagnosis?
  31. A question about Ig in breast feeding milk
  32. A criterion for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a period of excessive worrying that lasts for at least how many months?
  33. A question about a virus that causes Bronchiolitis
  34. In immunoglobulin G (IgG) nephropathies such as glomerulonephritis, IgG is deposited in which location? 
  35. A question about the age of peak bone mass

NURS 6501 Final Exam Review Guide

Concepts of Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders 

  • Pathophysiology of diseases that not only affect the nervous system and can secondarily impact the musculoskeletal system.
  • The pathophysiological structure, function, and alterations in the MS system
  • Pathophysiological changes of Lyme’s Disease in adults
  • Alterations in cognitive systems to include confusion states, delirium, and Parkinson’s Disease.
  • Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems • Pathophysiological changes related to Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function 
  • How does patient characteristics such as racial and ethnic variables impact altered physiology?
  • How does the pathophysiology of spinal injuries impact patients? • What is the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology. 

Common Neurological and MS disorders and the pathophysiological nature of  these issues in adults and children: 

  • Stroke 
  • Multiple sclerosis 
  • Transient Ischemic Attack 
  • Myasthenia gravis 
  • Headache 
  • Seizure disorders 
  • Head injury 
  • Spinal cord injury 

Inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system 

  • Osteoporosis 
  • Osteopenia 
  • Bursitis 
  • Tendinitis 
  • Gout 
  • Lyme Disease
  • Spondylosis 
  • Fractures 
  • Parkinson’s 
  • Alzheimer’s 
  • Three basic bone-formations: 
  • Osteoblasts 
  • Osteocytes 
  • Osteoclasts 


Concepts of Psychological Disorders 

  • What are the connections between biological factors and psychological disorders as they affect factors such as substance abuse? 
  • The pathophysiological changes in Neurobiology of Schizophrenia, Mood  Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Common psychological disorders and the pathophysiological nature of these  issues in adults and children: 

  • Generalized anxiety disorder 
  • Depression 
  • Bipolar disorders 
  • Schizophrenia 
  • Delirium and dementia 
  • Obsessive compulsive disease 

Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 

  • The pathophysiology, structure, and function of the reproductive systems. • Pathophysiological changes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders.
  • How can racial/ethnic variables impact the physiological functioning of these disorders.
  • The impact of alterations in erythrocytes, platelets, and hemostatic  function as it relates to pathophysiological responses in adults and children.
  • The impact of alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function as it relates  to pathophysiological responses in adults. 

Common women’s, men’s, infections, and hematologic disorders and the  pathophysiological nature of these issues in adults: 

  • Sexually transmitted diseases 
  • Prostate 
  • Epididymitis 
  • Factors that affect fertility 
  • Reproductive health 
  • Alterations and fertility 
  • Anemia 
  • ITP and TTP 
  • DIC 
  • Thrombocytopenia 


  • Shock, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome, and Burns in Children 

Common pediatric disorders and the pathophysiological nature of these issues in  children: 

  • Cancer in Children 
  • Growth and development 
  • Normal growth patterns 
  • Scoliosis (ortho) 
  • Kawasaki 
  • Alterations in children 
  • Congenital (heart syndrome) 
  • PDAs 
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) 
  • Asthma 
  • Lead poisoning and effects on neurological functioning 
  • Sickle cell 
  • Hemophilia

Note: It is strongly recommended that you review your Knowledge Checks at least  48 hours before taking the Final exam.


The Vital Importance of Report Writing in Nursing

Nursing Report Writing

A  nursing report essay is a type of essay that seeks to explain something, place or a situation. It is written to inform the reader and help him/her understand the subject in a broad perspective. As a writer, you must be creative and artistic. This will help your reader understand what you are writing about, and through facts and well searched information, and your  report will attract more readers.

Writing a top quality  nursing report essay is not simple and many people seek professional essay writing help from various custom writing companies.  When writing a quality nursing report essay, the writer must use imaginative language so as to elicit vivid mental images in the reader. When looking for a custom writing company to write your  nursing report essay, you must ensure that the company has qualified experienced writers to handle your essay. Most of the writing companies may have experience in other types of essay writing but lack proficient  nursing report essay writers. Nursing report  essay writing requires that the writer has experience and understands basic essay writing tips. 

In the realm of nursing, report writing is more than just a routine task; it's a lifeline that connects all aspects of patient care, professional accountability, and effective teamwork. Without it, the healthcare system would be fraught with communication gaps, potential legal issues, and a lack of data for continuous quality improvement.

The importance of report writing in nursing cannot be overstated. It is the thread that weaves together the various aspects of healthcare, ensuring that patients receive the best possible care, that nurses maintain professional accountability, and that healthcare institutions operate effectively. The next time you encounter a nurse jotting down notes or typing on a computer, remember that they are not just writing a report; they are upholding the quality and safety of patient care in their capable hands.

Nursing Report  writing process

Select your subject-there are so many topics that you can write on  nursing report essays. You therefore have to select the most suitable topic that you are familiar with. Don’t select a subject that you have no ideas about; it will cause you a lot of trouble.  In most cases, students are given the subject to choose by their professors and sometimes, the student is asked to select the subject on his own. Make sure that you are ok with the subject given or the one you have chosen.

Do the research-after you have selected the subject, look for all relevant information required during the writing process. It is important you conduct in depth research so as to familiarize yourself with the topic fully. This will help you have a smooth writing process.

Create an outline-work out a rough outline to help you plan your nursing report essay. Your  report structure or outline will help you be on track and you avoid drifting off the topic. Most students who don’t make an essay outline end up writing irrelevant information and this only weaken their nursing report essay. It is important to have an essay outline no matter what!

Write down your  nursing report essay-after you have everything ready, craft your essay and avoid plagiarism.  Ensure that you have addressed all issues vividly and creatively. When writing a nursing report essay, avoid adjectives, make sure that every word you use works to enforce the idea that you are trying to convey. Note that it is important that you first write your  nursing report essay as a draft.

Revise and proofread your nursing report essay-one you have completed your nursing report essay, read it through and correct any mistake you will find. Ensure that your nursing report essay is eye catching and well organized

Best nursing writing services, Nursing report writing services, Nursing writing services

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When looking for nursing report writing services, ensure that the company that you are choosing is professional enough to put your needs first. They need to understand that following all of the instructions given is mandatory. They also need to have an inert understanding of the assignment if acing is to be expected. This is what guarantees and the long list of positive reviews on our website is proof of that. Being a result-oriented company offering the best nursing writing services, our prices are always low. With us, your success is our biggest inspiration and we are determined to see you excel in your studies. Your academic excellence is just another success story in waiting.

If you are in need of a custom made nursing report essay, you can feel free to contact . We have qualified academic essay writers who craft original essays from scratch. We are an affordable custom  nursing writing company !!

What is Needed for Your GCU Dissertation Proposal Defense?

Step 1: Reviewing the IRB Approval Requirement

Embarking on a research project, especially one involving human subjects, is a process that necessitates careful planning and adherence to ethical standards. One critical step in this journey is to review the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval requirement. The IRB plays a pivotal role in ensuring that research involving humans is conducted ethically, safely, and with respect for the rights and welfare of participants. In this blog post, we will delve into the importance of reviewing the IRB approval requirement as Step 1 in your research endeavor.

Understanding the IRB

The Institutional Review Board is a regulatory body that oversees research involving human subjects. Its primary function is to evaluate and approve research protocols to ensure they meet ethical and legal standards. The IRB's role is to protect the rights, safety, and well-being of research participants. It acts as a safeguard against potential harm and ensures that research is conducted in an ethical and responsible manner.

Step 2: Getting Started with IRB and Video Tutorials

In the process of conducting research involving human subjects, once you've reviewed the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval requirement, the next crucial step is to get started with the IRB application. Navigating the IRB process can be complex, but it's an essential part of ensuring ethical and legal compliance in your research. This blog post will guide you through Step 2: Getting Started with IRB and the benefits of using video tutorials to assist you in this process.

Understanding the Importance of IRB Approval

Before delving into the practical aspects of starting your IRB application, it's vital to understand why IRB approval is so important:

  1. Ethical Compliance: IRB approval ensures that your research is conducted in an ethically sound manner, respecting the rights, privacy, and safety of research participants.

  2. Legal Obligation: In many countries and institutions, obtaining IRB approval is a legal requirement for any research involving human subjects. Failure to comply can have serious consequences.

  3. Research Credibility: IRB approval adds credibility to your research, making it more likely to be accepted by academic journals and institutions, ultimately enhancing the impact of your work.

Step 3: Completing CITI Training for Ethical Research

As you progress in your journey of conducting research involving human subjects, ethical considerations remain paramount. Step 3 in this process involves completing Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) training, which is a critical component in ensuring that you understand and adhere to ethical standards in research. In this blog post, we will explore the significance of CITI training and how it contributes to ethical research practices.

Understanding the Role of CITI Training

CITI training is designed to educate researchers on ethical principles and regulatory requirements related to human research subjects. Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative offers comprehensive courses that cover various aspects of research ethics, including informed consent, confidentiality, data management, and the protection of vulnerable populations. Here's why CITI training is essential:

  1. Compliance with Regulations:

    • Completing CITI training is often a requirement set by institutions and regulatory bodies overseeing research involving human subjects. It ensures that researchers comply with the ethical standards and legal obligations associated with their work.
  2. Education on Ethical Principles:

    • CITI courses provide in-depth education on ethical principles, such as autonomy, beneficence, and justice, which are essential for conducting research that respects the rights and welfare of participants.
  3. Protection of Participants:

    • Understanding the ethical guidelines taught in CITI training helps researchers safeguard the well-being of research participants by minimizing risks, ensuring informed consent, and protecting their privacy.
  4. Enhanced Research Quality:

    • Researchers who have completed CITI training are better equipped to design and conduct studies that adhere to ethical standards. This ultimately leads to more robust and credible research.

Completing CITI Training

  1. Determine CITI Requirements: Begin by identifying whether CITI training is required for your research project. Check with your institution, department, or the IRB to confirm the specific CITI training requirements that apply to your research.

  2. Register for CITI Courses: Create an account on the CITI Program website ( and select the appropriate training modules based on your research area and role. CITI offers courses tailored to different disciplines and roles, including researchers, IRB members, and research staff.

  3. Complete the Required Modules: Work through the CITI training modules at your own pace. These modules typically consist of readings, quizzes, and interactive elements that help reinforce your understanding of ethical principles and research regulations.

  4. Pass the Quizzes: Successfully pass the quizzes associated with each module. Many institutions require researchers to achieve a passing score to  demonstrate their comprehension of the material.

  5. Receive a Completion Certificate: Once you have completed the required modules and passed the quizzes, CITI will provide you with a completion certificate. Keep this certificate as proof of your training.

  6. Maintain Ongoing Certification: Some institutions may require researchers to periodically renew their CITI certification to ensure that they stay up-to-date with evolving ethical guidelines and regulations.

Step 4: Obtaining Site Authorization from Your Selected Research Site

In the process of conducting research, especially in fields that involve data collection at specific sites or institutions, obtaining site authorization is a critical step. Step 4 involves securing the necessary permissions and approvals from the selected research site. This blog post explores the importance of site authorization and provides guidance on how to navigate this essential step in your research journey.

Understanding the Significance of Site Authorization

Site authorization, also known as institutional permission or site clearance, is the formal approval you need to conduct your research at a particular site or institution. This step is essential for several reasons:

  1. Legal and Ethical Compliance:

    • Obtaining site authorization ensures that your research aligns with the policies and regulations of the institution or location where you plan to conduct your study.
    • It demonstrates your commitment to ethical research practices and compliance with any relevant laws or guidelines.
  2. Access to Resources:

    • Site authorization grants you access to the facilities, data, participants, or resources required for your research. Without proper authorization, your research could be hindered or delayed.
  3. Data Collection Permission:

    • In cases where your research involves data collection within a specific organization or institution, site authorization is necessary to gain access to participants and their data.
  4. Collaboration Opportunities:

    • Some research projects involve collaboration with external organizations or institutions. Obtaining site authorization fosters partnerships and ensures a smooth research process.

Obtaining Site Authorization

  1. Identify the Site Contact: Determine who the appropriate contact person is at the selected research site. This may be an institutional review board (IRB), a research administrator, a department head, or a designated representative.

  2. Review Site Requirements: Understand the specific requirements and procedures for obtaining site authorization at the chosen location. Different institutions may have varying processes and documentation needs.

  3. Prepare Your Documentation: Gather all necessary documentation, including your research proposal, IRB approval, informed consent forms, and any other materials required by the site. Ensure that your documentation is complete and in compliance with site-specific guidelines.

  4. Contact the Site Representative: Reach out to the site contact and initiate communication regarding your research project. Clearly explain your intentions, objectives, and the scope of your research.

  5. Submit Your Request: Follow the site's designated process for requesting authorization. This typically involves submitting your documentation and application for review.

  6. Address Feedback and Questions: Be prepared to address any questions or concerns raised by the site representative during the authorization process. Timely and clear communication is key to a smooth approval process.

  7. Await Authorization: Once you have submitted your request, patiently await site authorization. The time it takes to receive approval may vary depending on the institution's internal processes.

  8. Maintain Records: Keep meticulous records of all correspondence and documentation related to site authorization. This documentation may be needed for future reference or to address any issues that arise during your research.

Strategies for Writing a Nursing Case Study

Strategies for Writing a Nursing Case Study

Nursing case studies are an essential aspect of nursing education as they help students apply theoretical knowledge to real-life situations. The process of writing a nursing case study can be overwhelming, particularly for new nursing students. However, with the right strategies, writing a nursing case study can be an enjoyable experience that enhances one's learning. In this article, we will discuss strategies for writing a nursing case study.

Understand the Case Study Assignment

Before starting to write a nursing case study, it is essential to understand the assignment requirements. This includes the format of the case study, the length of the paper, and the grading criteria. Understanding these requirements will help you to stay focused and avoid any unnecessary information that does not address the case study's objectives.

Identify the Patient

The first step in writing a nursing case study is identifying the patient. This involves obtaining a detailed patient history, including demographic information, medical history, and presenting symptoms. The patient's history is crucial as it helps to establish the patient's health status, identify potential risks, and develop an appropriate nursing care plan.

Conduct a Thorough Assessment

After identifying the patient, the next step is to conduct a thorough assessment. This involves gathering information about the patient's current health status, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. The assessment should cover all aspects of the patient's health, including any existing medical conditions, medications, allergies, and vital signs. Additionally, it is important to evaluate the patient's mental and emotional status, as well as any social or environmental factors that may affect their health.

Develop a Nursing Care Plan

Once you have completed the patient assessment, the next step is to develop a nursing care plan. The nursing care plan should be patient-centered, evidence-based, and culturally sensitive. The plan should include achievable goals, interventions, and expected outcomes. It should also take into consideration the patient's preferences, values, and beliefs.

Write the Case Study

After developing the nursing care plan, the next step is to write the case study. The case study should follow a specific format, including an introduction, patient background information, assessment findings, nursing diagnosis, nursing care plan, interventions, and outcomes. The case study should be well-organized, concise, and written in a professional tone. Additionally, it should be free of any grammatical errors or typos.

Include Evidence-Based Practice

In writing a nursing case study, it is important to include evidence-based practice. This involves using current research and literature to support your nursing care plan and interventions. Evidence-based practice helps to ensure that the nursing interventions are effective and based on the best available evidence.

Use a Patient-Centered Approach

When writing a nursing case study, it is important to use a patient-centered approach. This means focusing on the patient's needs, preferences, and values when developing the nursing care plan and interventions. The patient's input and involvement should be included in the nursing care plan, and their feedback should be taken into consideration when evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions.

Reflect on the Case Study

After completing the nursing case study, it is important to reflect on the experience. This involves evaluating the effectiveness of the nursing care plan and interventions and identifying areas for improvement. Reflection is an important aspect of nursing education as it helps students to learn from their experiences and develop critical thinking skills.

Some common nursing case study scenarios that nursing students may encounter during their education:

  1. Patient with hypertension
  2. Patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  4. Patient with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
  5. Patient with Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
  6. Patient with Myocardial Infarction (MI)
  7. Patient with Pneumonia
  8. Patient with Septic Shock
  9. Patient with Renal Failure
  10. Patient with Stroke
  11. Patient with Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  12. Patient with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  13. Patient with Parkinson's Disease (PD)
  14. Patient with Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
  15. Patient with Schizophrenia
  16. Patient with Bipolar Disorder
  17. Patient with Substance Abuse Disorder
  18. Patient with Depression
  19. Patient with Anxiety Disorder
  20. Patient with Eating Disorder
  21. Patient with Chronic Pain
  22. Patient with Spinal Cord Injury
  23. Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
  24. Patient with Cancer
  25. Patient with HIV/AIDS
  26. Patient with Wound Infection
  27. Patient with Pressure Ulcer
  28. Patient with Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  29. Patient with Sepsis
  30. Patient with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)


In conclusion, writing a nursing case study requires careful planning, attention to detail, and the use of evidence-based practice. Understanding the assignment requirements, identifying the patient, conducting a thorough assessment, developing a nursing care plan, and writing the case study in a patient-centered approach are essential strategies for writing a successful nursing case study. Additionally, including evidence-based practice and reflecting on the experience can enhance the learning experience and improve nursing practice.