Our Nursing Papers Samples/Examples

NURS 403 Ethics, Research Design and Sampling Activity

Type: Article Review

Subject: Comparative Qualitative Research Design

Subject area: Nursing

Education Level: Undergraduate/College

Length: 3 pages

Referencing style: APA

Preferred English: US English

Spacing Option: Double

Instructions: retrieve the following full-text article from the cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature or similar search database: degrazia, m., giambanco, d., hamn, g., ditzel, a., tucker, l., & gauvreau, k. (2015) prevention of deformational plagiocephaly in hospitalized infants using a new orthotic device. journal of obstetric, gynecologic & neonatal nursing, 44(1), 28–41. review the article, looking for evidence of any ethical or legal issues that arose in the study and how the researchers dealt with them. consider the following appraisal questions in your critical review of this research article: 1. in which ways are the subjects in this study vulnerable? which protections should be put in place to protect these subjects from harm? 2. identify the potential risks inherent in this study for the subjects. what should specifically be included in the informed consent for this study? 3. what evidence is provided by the authors that the study was reviewed by the irb and that appropriate informed consent was obtained? 4. how do the authors minimize the risks to the subjects? 5. in your opinion, do the potential benefits of this treatment outweigh the potential risks to the infant? why or why not? research design and sampling questions 1. differentiate a population from a sample and give an example of each. explain how a sample can be advantageous in nursing research. 2. what is a sampling error and why do we want to minimize it? 3. describe selection bias and the conditions under which is may exist. how can selection bias affect the outcome of a study? how does it affect the use of research as evidence? 5. describe four types and methods that can be used to randomly select a sample for a quantitative study. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. 6. contrast the advantages and disadvantages of convenience sampling. 7. explain how snowball sampling works and when it could be used . 8. define saturation. how does a researcher know when saturation has been achieved? 9. review article posted on moodle- social networks and substance use among at-risk emerging adults… answer the critical appraisal exercise questions page 185. 10. share an article with your group and determine- • inclusion criteria • exclusion criteria • selection strategy


Comparative Qualitative Research Design

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Comparative Qualitative Research Design

Article: Degrazia, M., Giambanco, D., Hamn, G., Ditzel, A., Tucker, L., & Gauvreau, K. (2015) Prevention of deformational plagiocephaly in hospitalized infants using a new orthotic device. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44(1), 28–41

The Vulnerability of the Study Subjects

The study subjects in the article are infants delivered at 22 or more week’s gestation but are less than two weeks old. These subjects are vulnerable because they cannot make informed decisions and have reduced freewill. The protection that should be put in place to protect them from harm includes local regulations ensuring that their foreseen risk is minimal, the subject directly benefits from the research, and researchers do not compromise their well-being.

Potential Risk Inherent to the Study Subjects

The potential risk inherent in the study subjects included cardiorespiratory instability, device integration, and gastrointestinal events. Therefore, the information that should be specifically included in the informed consent includes the expected benefits and foreseeable risk using cranial cup device.

Evidence of the Study Being Reviewed by IRB and Informed Consent Obtained

According to the article, each of the participating institution’s ethical review committee approved the study.  Parents of infants involved in the study filled HIPAA authorization and informed consent before participating in the study. Additionally, some parents withdrew their infants from the research because of concerns like comfort, suggesting that they signed the informed consent that allowed them to withdraw from the study.

How the Authors Minimized the Risks to the Subjects

The researchers were concerned about gastrointestinal disturbances and cardiorespiratory instability. They ensured the safety of the study participants when utilizing the cranial cup. The authors recorded continuous oxygen saturation to enhance the safety of the study subjects and measured cardiorespiratory stability.

Whether Potential Benefits of the Treatment Outweighs the Potential Risks to the Infants

The study’s primary purpose was to measure the cranial cup device feasibility, efficacy, and safety in hospitalized infants susceptible to DP (deformational plagiocephaly). DP is a medical condition defined by the flattening of the infant’s head, leading to a widened, narrowed, elongated or asymmetrical head shape. The condition might be accompanied by frontal bossing, facial asymmetry, and ear misalignment. However, cranial cup corrects or prevents the medical condition by supporting the baby’s entire body and head in semiside and supine lying positions. The study findings confirmed that rotating the device with moderate positioner offers a potentially efficacious, safe, and feasible therapy for DP prevention. The harm associated with the study included gastrointestinal disturbances and cardiorespiratory instability. However, the researchers managed them by recording oxygen saturation. Thus, the potential benefits of the treatment outweigh the potential risk to the infants.

Research Design Sampling Questions

Differentiating between A population and a Sample

A sample refers to a group of individuals involved in the research. These individuals can be surveyed or interviewed to meet the study purpose.  In contrast, a population is the wider group of individuals that the researchers plan to generalize their study findings. In the article, the population comprises all infants at risk for DP while the study sample was the 62 infants included in the study. Therefore, a sample is important in nursing research because conclusions derived from it are generalizable to the target population, such as infants at risk for DP.

Defining Sampling Error and why it is minimized

 A sampling error is a statistical error that results when a sample is not representative of the population. Researcher minimizes it to enhance the generalizability of their study findings to the broader population.

Selection Bias and Conditions under Which It May Exist

Selection bias is a type of error that results when the researcher decides the study participants because their selection is not random. In such studies, the subjects selected might not be similar, and the characters differentiating them might result in varying outcomes. Selection bias also results when individuals volunteer to take part in the research. These individuals may have traits that differentiate them from non-participants resulting in a biased outcome.

How Selection Bias Affect the Outcome of a Study

Selection bias results in biased outcome due to confounding. For instance, if a researcher wants to study night shift’s impact on certain medical conditions, he might obtain data from a group of five or nine employees and another group of staff working night shift but performing same tasks.  The researcher then measures the rate at which the study participants reported the medical condition. The study finding might suggest that the night shift increases the prevalence of that medical condition. The study findings are biased because the night shift workers might have lower socioeconomic status, fewer skills, and limited employment opportunities. Their socio-economic background increases their risks to various health conditions. Therefore, the study findings might be influenced by the workers’ socioeconomic status rather than working night shift.

Four Methods that can be used to Randomly Select a Quantitative Study Sample

  1. Systematic sampling: The method assigns a number to every member of the population. The individuals are identified at regular intervals. The method is convenient and simple. However, the researcher must ensure that no hidden pattern exists because it can result in a skewed sample. 
  2. Simple random sampling: Chances of every person in the population being selected is equal. The method lacks bias and is simple. However, it is expensive, time-consuming, and bias is likely to occur in  some situations
  3. Stratified sampling: The method divides the population into subgroups that differ in significant ways. It enables researchers to get a sample that represents a population. However, the method is not appropriate for every data set or study design
  4. Cluster sampling. The method groups the population into clusters that mini-represents the entire population. The method is feasible and requires fewer resources. However, it increases biased samples and sampling error.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Convenience Sampling

Convenient samples are cheap because the researchers use individuals most accessible. However, it is difficult to determine whether the sample is representative of the population. Therefore, the results of the sampling method are not generalizable.


 How Snowball Sampling Works and When It Could Be Used 

Snowball sampling is used in populations that are difficult to access. Thus, participants’ recruitment is through referrals because the study subjects have rare trait such as elite country club members.

Defining Saturation

Saturation refers to the point at which the researchers do not discover new information in their data analysis.


Degrazia, M., Giambanco, D., Hamn, G., Ditzel, A., Tucker, L., & Gauvreau, K. (2015) Prevention of deformational plagiocephaly in hospitalized infants using a new orthotic device. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 44(1), 28–41