Our Nursing Papers Samples/Examples

Promoting health and preventing ill health

Type: Assignments

Subject: Issues in Nursing

Subject area: Nursing

Education Level: Masters Program

Length: 9 pages

Referencing style: Harvard - standard

Preferred English: US English

Spacing Option: Double

Title: Promoting Health and Preventing Ill Health

Instructions: question: develop a health profile for an individual living in a local community in england. you will identify health risks and discuss possible advice and support could you as a nurse give them to promote their health and wellbeing.

Focus: i have already submitted the essay but did not get a pass mark. i have recommendations from my marker on where i went wrong which i will include in this submission. my expectation is for my original work to be improved to the expected standard/level as the re submitted work will be compared to the original.

Structure: original essay will be included. word count selected is without references please. the word count itself is 2500 without references.

Promoting Health and Preventing Ill Health

Student’s Name





 The Healthy People 2020 quality framework for health and wellbeing highlights the vital role of nurses and midwives in tackling the public health challenges (Yaemsiri et al., 2020, p. 2031). Nurses play a critical role in ensuring the continuity of care and addressing health need of the community amidst dynamic health needs. According to the World Health Organization, the mandate of nurses incorporates prevention and treatment of diseases in a community setting (WHO, 2019). In this respect, it is the prerogative of nurses to coordinate, lead and the deliver evidence-based and person-centred care to the people who need it in a community. Therefore, the nurses are the guardian of community health and well-being considering that they are mandated with protecting the people against any adverse health effects trough health promotion. 

 According to Coster, Watkins and Norman (2018), the imperative role of a nurse is evident during promoting health and well-being of vulnerable populations. For example, the input of nurses in addressing mental health challenges in a community is important in enabling attainment of the Healthy People 2020 objectives (Pahigiannis et al., 2019, p. 1960). Also, health promotion leads to management of other comorbidities that may lead to development of negative health in the community. This implies that the input of nurses cannot be watered down in enabling help robustness of community the healthy barriers that prevent people from living independent lifestyles. 

 The field of nursing contributes significantly to promoting health and well-being in the community by enabling individuals take control of their health. The Nursing and Midwifery Council advocates for Person-Centred care in health promotion to enable nurses develop interventions specific to given scenario (NMC 2020). This intervention leads to development of a rational intervention that will not only address health challenges in a community but also empower the people to be champion of good health. Therefore, the field of nursing is vital in addressing the health care barriers in a community. 

 Based on these considerations, it is fundamental to identify the health risk in a community to enable development of evidence-based intervention to address a health barrier. It is the interest of this essay to identify such barriers by developing a healthy profile of an individual living in London Borough of Ealing. The rationale for developing a healthy profile is to identify different parameters that are significant to health and well-being of the individual. The scope of this essay will incorporate identifying health risk and discussing possible intervention from a nursing perspective that will enable promoting health and well-being of the individual. The essay will apply Orem’s theory of self-care to demonstrate the role played by nurses in enabling the individual make decision regarding her overall health outcomes. Also, this theory will be invaluable in assessing the input of nurses in enabling the patient adopt positive health behaviour that are vital for improving the overall health outcomes. 


According to WHO, health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being as opposed to absence of a disease or infirmity (WHO, 2019). This aspect incorporates the physical health of an individual. Well-being is not just about the absence of illness or disease rather a complex combination of an individual's physical, mental, social health factors. Studies have linked well-being to satisfaction of life and happiness (Argan et al., 2018, p. 52). This implies that wellbeing can be viewed as how individuals feel about their current state and their life. Similarly, every aspect of an individual's life influences the state of well-being. For example, neighbourhood and built environment, socioeconomic status, nutritional diet or happy intimate relationship with a partner can be vital parameters that enhance satisfaction of an individual and influence their well-being. It is important to note that these factors that influence well-being are interrelated. For instance, securing unemployment that provide not just stable income but purpose, friendship, attainment of goal and a sense of belonging.

 Also, these aspects make up for the deficit in others such as a good marriage that can compensate for lack of friendship or religious beliefs of an individual that may play a vital role in helping cope with physical illness. Therefore, WHO’s definition of health and well-being incorporate the perspectives that influence the overall state of health of an individual. 

Drawing from the World Health Organisation’s definition of health and well-being, the assessment of an individual is critical in carrying out a successful health promotion and interventions. To enable delivery of person-centred care, it is vital to formulate a health profile to understand the health and health status of community members. According to Whitehead (2018), health profiles are important to enable the nurses develop effective interventions to address the health gap or health challenges in community. This is because they enable understanding of the well-being of community members by the application of diverse texts and charts. 

Also, health profiles are useful in understanding health needs of individuals based on their neighbourhood or community (Paulis et al. 2017, p. 438). The rationale for basing the health data and well-being of an individual on their community or neighbourhood is due to the impact that social determinants have on the overall quality of life of an individual in a community. This essay will use the WHO’s definition of health as a starting point to determine health and well-being of an individual (Mrs Z), living in London Borough of Ealing. This essay will also look at the health profile of the individual and factors that impact on her health and well-being. 

Mrs Z current health, social and demographical status

Mrs Z is a 30 year old black African woman who is clinically obese and lives in Ealing Borough. The individual weighs 110 kgs and 156 cm in height. Mrs Z has basic level of education as she has recently completed a diploma in accounting. Currently, she works with a local municipal council as an accountant although she has been sent on compulsory leave as the council downscaled due to COVID-19 pandemic. Mrs Z’s annual income is £8,000 and does not have any other income. The individual lives with her three sons in a low income neighbourhood as she recently divorced from her husband after domestic violence. Mrs Z has also applied for aid from the state reserves but has not attained any response yet. Mrs Z has been actively looking for a stable employment since her current job is not sufficient to cater for her daily life. Mrs Z is a social drinker and takes at least four bottles of alcohol per week. She also smokes two packet of cigarette per week although she is reducing this due to her advice from her doctor.

From the assessment of Mrs Z’s data, it’s evident that her social determinants influence significantly her health and wellbeing. According to Donkin et al., (2018), social determinants impact on the ability of an individual to live a healthy and satisfying life. For instance, the individual’s neighbourhood and built environment impact on the quality of life and well-being. This parameter influences the availability of healthy food options such as green foods, access to social infrastructure and facilities such as exercise fields, walk paths and resting tracks. The neighbourhood aspect also affects the ability of an individual to access health services and primary care. Studies have shown that living in a low income neighbourhood increases the chances of an individual to lack basic health care needs (Chudyk et al., 2017, p. 12). For instance, individuals living in low-income neighbourhood travel long distances to access health care or specialised attentions. As cited by Kent, Ma and Mulley (2017), the built environment determines the social health such as hobbies and support groups. For Mrs Z, she lives in a low-income neighbourhood that does not provide social amenities or social support. 

The income and economic status also influences the health outcomes of an individual. Studies have shown that income dictates significantly ability of an individual to cater for their health and care needs (Figueroa, Frakt and Jha, 2020, p. 1554). For instance, the level of income determines where an individual lives, ability to afford healthy food options and overall quality of life. This implies that the level of income is significant in determining the quality of life an individual derives from an environment. As cited by Donkin et al., (2018) income and economic stability influences directly other social determinants such as neighbourhood and built environment, access to health, food options among others. This aspect is significant for Mrs Z as her income is insufficient to cater for her daily needs. This predisposes her to poor health outcomes. 

The level of education as a social determinant of health is critical in determining the ability of such individual to adopt heath promoting behaviours. The level of education is also vital to determine the compliance of an individual to health plans, healthy eating habits and adherence to medication. As noted by Davidson and McGinn (2018) an individual with higher education will most likely understand the need to adopt health behaviours and avoid behaviours affecting ill health. This implies that such individuals will read and understand medication plans and other critical parameters for healthy living and well-being. Also, the level of education determines an individual’s income as a highly educated person is more likely to secure a well-paying job. Consequently, this aspect determines the place of residence, access to care facilities, affordability of healthy foods among others. It’s evident from Mrs Z’s data that she has a diploma in accounting and has a temporary job with the local municipal council. Her level of education is however not sufficient to enable her earn high income for her sustenance. Besides, Mrs Z can further her education in a local university and optimize on her understanding of healthy living. This undertaking can also lead to improvement in her social status through better income and neighbourhood. 

The above information concerning Mrs Z highlights the need to adopt healthier lifestyle to avert her health risks and negative health status. For instance, Mrs Z has been living a sedentary lifestyle partly due to lack of social and physical infrastructure for exercise in her neighbourhood. This aspect has also led to poor food options as she frequently takes fast foods from a local restaurant. Public Health England recommends intake of at least 5 portions of vegetables or a fruit daily (Public Health England, 2018). Mrs Z cited that she takes a fruit or a vegetable weekly and she is compelled to travel long distances to source for them. Also, Public Health England recommends participating in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical exercise every week. According to the physical activity guidelines for adults in UK, participating in a 10 minutes physical exercise is critical in attainment of overall health outcomes (Public Health England, 2019). For Mrs Z, she does not participate in physical activity. She cites that she has lived a sedentary lifestyle for the past six years. This information implies that the individual is at high health risks and in need of rational interventions. 

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Health promotion for Mrs Z

Considering Mrs Z health status, health promotion would be critical to improve her overall health outcomes. To begin with, it would be prudential to advice Mrs Z on the need to adopt healthy eating as this has a positive impact in reducing obesity and other comorbidities. Studies have shown that eating green foods can be vital in reducing an individual’s body mass index through reduced calories and sugar intake. Secondly, Mrs Z needs to start physical exercise at least three times a week as recommended by Public Health England. This undertaking will be critical in reducing her weight and improving her physical fitness. Besides, physical activity will lead to burring excess calories leading reduction in chronic obesity. Mrs Z will be referred to a psychotherapist where she will be scheduled for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) sessions. Studies have shown that CBT leads to long term behavioural change as an individual takes the lead in addressing negative health behaviours that reduces their well-being (Cunningham and Shapiro, 2018, p. 12). According to Davies et al., (2018), CBT teaches behavioural change that leads to improvement in the overall health outcomes. I would also advise Mrs Z to minimize drinking and smoking through offering alternatives that will eventually lead to cessation. The scope of this undertaking will be to administer nicotine replacement therapy such as gum and lozenges that will reduce addiction to tobacco over time. These approaches will lead to improvement in the overall health outcomes for Mrs Z. 

Public health policy 

The Ealing council’s public policy on improving health and well-being across Borough calls for concerted efforts to address challenging health needs. This policy can be important for Mrs Z as it can influence her decisions on health and well-being. This policy calls for partnership and coordination of activities among different health providers to improve community health (Ealing council, 2016). The Ealing council aims to improve the health of people through data driven process and supporting local clinical commissions to deliver high quality care. This policy is critical as it influences Mrs Z to be the champion of her own health through participating in activities lading to achievement of community health gaols. For instance, it’s the aim of this health policy to address key areas that have a significant impact on major health conditions such as reducing obesity, reducing smoking prevalence, increasing physical activities, increasing social contact among others. These parameters are significant for Mrs Z as they affect her overall quality of life. In this respect, Mrs Z would be motivated to adopt health promoting behaviours and healthy lifestyle leading to higher quality of life.

Certain parameters are significant in addressing the health and wellbeing of Mrs Z. These include the family, community and neighbourhood. To begin with, family and community influence social support in behavioural change. These parameters determine the ability how well the individual adheres to planned behaviours and health promoting activities. For instance, stigmatization from community due to obesity of addiction may lead to deterioration in adopted behavioural choices. Also, the family can be instrumental in encouraging Mrs Z to stick to proposed health plan such as exercises and diet. As noted by Arch et al., (2018), a supportive environment enhances prompt recovery and adherence to new healthy lifestyle. The social support in the neighbourhood such as provision of fields for exercise can also determine the achieved of the set milestones. This implies that these parameters must be considered in support of Mrs Z to adopt a healthy lifestyle. For example, it would be effective to extend health promotion to the family and community on the need to support an individual attain positive health. The scope of this undertaking incorporates sensitizing the community on the need to avert stigmatizing individuals based on their health status. 


This essay has highlighted the importance of health profile in understanding the heath needs and risks of an individual in a community. The health profile also allows for assessing the health deficits through data driven process. Of importance is the role of a nurse in community health promotion and preventing ill health. Through the intervention of a nurse, a care plan for Mrs Z was developed to address her health concerns. Focusing on the health needs of Mrs Z will be fundamental to increase her health and well-being as cited by Healthy People (2020).


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