You are working with a teenager whose friends vape. You realize that this patient is at risk for vaping and you want to implement interventions aimed at prevention. Which middle range theory would you use, and how would you apply it to this situation?
The middle range theory that I would use to implement interventions aimed at prevention is the theory of planned behavior. Montano and Kasprzyk (2015) stated that the theory of planned behavior enables the researcher or practitioner to obtain the basis of actions and decisions made by an individual or group. Theory of planned behavior also provides adequate information for evidence-based practices to be implemented properly because data collected about a patient or client is derived from precedents or prior cases (McEwen & Wills, 2019; Watters, Moore, & Wallston, 2016). Theory of planned behavior is also a good tool to learn about the technology and industry of vaping, and how individuals and groups are influenced to consume or use the product (Chu & Chen, 2016). The concept of caring, where the patient’s welfare and wellbeing is the focus of healing, interventions, and preventions, is similarly found in the middle range theory of planned behavior (McEwen & Wills, 2019).
To apply the middle range theory of planned behavior, I would determine the source of the vaping and then understand the motivations as to why the young teenager is keen on using vaping products. Vaping or e-cigarettes refers to products that heat a particular substance using an electronic gadget that simulates smoking, but the technology uses vapors or evaporated liquid molecules rather than gases that can be inhaled (Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2019). Vaping is highly addictive because of the nicotine found in the products, and may also pose major health threats because of other substances that can be toxic and harmful to the lungs, heart, throat, and other parts of the human body (Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2019).
The source of the vaping would most likely be either peer pressure coming from friends and or loved ones who are also into vaping. Another source could be the acceptance of vaping from the people who surround the teenager. Both circumstances make the teenager vulnerable to vaping because he/she is immersed in the environment that allows vaping and all its related products to be used. The theory of planned behavior can be observed and studied based on socio-economic context where the individual or group is exposed to the influences and inputs of others in a shared set of values and norms (McEwen & Wills, 2019; Schüz, Li, Hardinge, et al., 2017).
After identifying the source of the vaping, I would then attempt to encourage the teenager as well as his/her loved ones and friends, to avoid being in the midst of a vaping environment. The aim is to change the paradigm or culture of the teenagers who are exposed to vaping from many or even a handful of sources. By taking away the influences of vaping coming from other individuals and groups, the teenager would not have a model or a reference point for vaping. That takes away the practice and routine of vaping, and will then lead to a more productive path towards a healthy lifestyle.
Another intervention or prevention that would come from informing the teenager about the health concerns and possible toxic substances that may be found in vaping. By educating and informing the teenagers, they will hopefully understand why vaping is not a healthy product and will convince the teenagers from vaping. Social influence can affect the health practices of individuals and groups because cleanliness and wellbeing are shared values that both arise and influence based on the theory of planned behavior (Piras, Minnick, Lauderdale, et al., 2018). The prevention objective may also come from showing the cost of vaping and the benefits, or lack thereof, of vaping. Based on the theory of planned behavior, e-cigarettes and vaping arises from the introduction of new technology combined with the known effects of addiction to nicotine (Scheinfeld, Crook, & Perry, 2019).
Chu, T. H., & Chen, Y. Y. (2016). With good we become good: Understanding e-learning adoption by theory of planned behavior and group influences. Computers & Education, 92, 37-52.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Montano, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model. Health behavior: Theory, research and practice, 70(4), 231.
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2019). About Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/about-e-cigarettes.html
Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2019). Quick Facts on the Risks of E-cigarettes for Kids, Teens, and Young Adults. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/Quick-Facts-on-the-Risks-of-E-cigarettes-for-Kids-Teens-and-Young-Adults.html
Piras, S. E., Minnick, A., Lauderdale, J., Dietrich, M. S., & Vogus, T. J. (2018). The effects of social influence on nurses' hand hygiene behaviors. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 48(4), 216-221.
Scheinfeld, E., Crook, B., & Perry, C. L. (2019). Understanding Young Adults' E-cigarette Use through the Theory of Planned Behavior. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 6(2), 115-127.
Schüz, B., Li, A. S. W., Hardinge, A., McEachan, R. R., & Conner, M. (2017). Socioeconomic status as a moderator between social cognitions and physical activity: Systematic review and meta-analysis based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 186-195.
Watters, R., Moore, E. R., & Wallston, K. (2016). Development and validation of an evidence-based practice instrument for nursing students based on the theory of planned behavior. Journal of nursing measurement, 24(1), 1E-17E