Career Opportunities for an International Student to Gain a Job in the Healthcare Management

Research Ethics

Taking into account the importance of ethics in any research, the researcher (I), instituted the ethical principles that are acceptable in current modern scientific research. Therefore, basic policies and procedures were designed to ensure that the research subjects were safe and that sloppy or irresponsible behaviors were prevented. Owing to the fact that ignorance is not the defense here, the researcher had the duty to seek out and understand the theories and policies that are designed to bring upstanding research practices. These would then enhance the trustworthy, and considerations that the researchers were socially responsible to provide valuable results. It is important to note that this involved submitting them for peer review to be considered ethically and socially accepted. As widely noted, just when one part of the project is unethical the entire project may be considered to be in a sham (Centre for Bioethics, 2003).

As regards the authorship of the project, the researcher has taken a lot of considerations regarding the responsible authorship practices. This is with a view to preventing fraud and protecting the research project. Therefore, each person that will be listed in the research will be deemed rightly contributed to it. This regards the regulations offered by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which demands that each person who is on the project should have substantially contributed on it.  This involves being responsible for drafting the   article and critically revising it as regards its intellectual relevancy. Nevertheless, the person should also have had a say on the final version. In this regard, there was majorly one researcher (I) to undertake all these. This is to imply that there was no a coauthor in the study (Centre for Bioethics, 2003).  .

As regards plagiarism, it is vital to inform readers that all thoughts, pictures, ideas, words, theories or stories that are browed from other sources will be dealt with a lot of integrity and trustworthiness. This will also mean that this paper will be unique from the others that have already been published.  From the above mentions, it is important to realize that it is not enough to claim that the author may still be the owner of the data collected and therefore the owners may be mentioned. Secondly there is an implication that a clear , ethically sound, responsible and carefully outlined plan should be enacted  for managing the collected data right from the research to eliminate improper collection methods and conflicts of interests (Centre for Bioethics, 2003).   

The research will also not produce any findings that are engulfed in conflicts of interests, but instead depict intellectual objectivity. Earlier before, the researcher tried to identify various sources that may prove potential conflicts of interests so that to confront them without harming or damaging the integrity of the results and therefore the objectivity of the study. To combat further, the factors that may cause the lack of objectivity; the study employed various peer reviewers to discover them (Centre for Bioethics, 2003).

On Data Management

This refers to the research ethics alluding to three important factors: ownership and responsibility for the data collected, ethical and truthful collection of data that is reliable and retaining or sharing the data collected (Centre for Bioethics, 2003).

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Acupuncture For Migraine Prophylaxis: A Randomized Control Trial by Li et al

Recurrent and chronic headaches are a major source of morbidity and costs are substantial (Li et al., 2012). Understandably, medical researchers are looking for more cost-effective treatments for this condition. Acupuncture is widely used for the treatment of headaches in industrialized countries and it may be applied as a single modality as well as part of a more complex treatment program. Despite this popularity, there is still debate about whether acupuncture has ‘specific’ effects, that is, effects over and above placebo. (Li et al., 2012).

In this research, the authors conducted a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial for a period of 21 months in nine big hospitals in the Republic of China. Patients were invited mainly through the media and hospital clinics. They administered 20 sessions of electro-acupuncture to the patients through either sham acupuncture points or one of the three traditionally based Chinese medicine acupuncture point’s prescriptions for more than five weeks. The interest of the author was to obtain some data on the specificity of acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis, with the outcome of the clinical procedures measured in ‘the number of days with headaches’ as listed in a headache diary (Li et al., 2012). Migraine Specific Quality of Life questionnaire was used to determine the secondary outcomes at baseline 4, 8 and 16 weeks (Li et al., 2012).

Four hundred and eighty patients were placed into the four trial groups thus giving allowance for those who will drop out and a 95% strength of statistical significance of a decrease in the number of headaches of 1.5 days migraines each month. Majority of the trials fulfilled that acupuncture offers benefits in the treatment of headache. However, the assessment of physical forms of treatment that includes acupuncture poses certain difficulties and thus specialized parameters in the study design need to be considered. Acupuncture techniques require individualization, a carefully chosen placebo, and the crossover design should have enough time between the two treatment periods. Clinical trials that evaluate acupuncture are often characterized by numerous inadequacies. However, an extra clinical research is usually needed to confirm its effectiveness and elucidate its indications (Li et al., 2012).


Task-Focused and Patient Centered Communication Behaviors

Task-Focused and Patient Centered Communication Behaviors


Nurses are entrenched in a complex system of clinical relationships some of which include nurse-nurse, nurse-patient and nurse-physician. Communication forms the basis for these relationships and depends on the nurse’s ability in listening, assimilating, interpreting, discriminating, gathering and sharing of information within dynamic systems comprising of various disciplines and hierarchies. Communication is complex encompassing skill, emotion, cognition and value. Formulation and implementation of daily care plans are among the most vital patient related communications. These activities call for shared responsibility in order to enhance clear, concise, relevant and timely exchange of patient information across disciplines usually in chaotic environments. Lack of effective communication between patients, families and the healthcare team is one of the leading causes of medical errors. It also accounts for over 60% of sentinel event causes reported to the joint commission on accreditation of healthcare organizations since 1995 (Manning, 2006).

Relationships provide a foundation for building communication. Relationships change over time and vary between and among nurses as well as other members of the healthcare team. It is quite difficult to develop and nurture clinical relationships in dynamic healthcare environments because there is less opportunity. For instance, an initial encounter with a nurse may occur when there is a need to contact an unfamiliar physician to offer assistance in an emerging critical event. It is not easy to trust unknown colleagues on judgment, decision-making and clinical knowledge. The patterns of communication are highly variable. The factors that influence these communication factors consist of individual style differences, education, gender, previous experiences, perspectives, culture, fatigue, stress, social structures and established hierarchies. Environments for clinical care are often noisy, hectic and full of interruptions especially in common places (Miller, 2006). Conversation avoidance devices like personal digital assistants, audiotape players, text pagers and cell phones interfere with the ability of nurses to listen to other people. It is therefore worth noting that the complexity of clinical communication increases the chances of communication failure and hence resulting to inadvertent patient harm. However, adoption of certain standardized approaches and tools can provide solutions to the improvement of clinical communication, which in turn prevents medical errors (Manning, 2006). This paper will focus on what other people have written regarding the task focused and patient centered communication behaviours in the nursing field, particularly within the context of the United States.

Patient Centered Communication Behavior

Patient-centered communication (PCC) refers to a group of communication behaviors and strategies, which enhance mutuality, shared understandings and consequently shared decision making in day-to-day encounters of healthcare (Brown, 1999). It enables the patients to influence and participate in their healthcare. PCC is the root of patient-centered healthcare (Stein-Parbury, 2009). Patient-centered healthcare involves the provision of care that respects and responses to patient’s needs, preferences, and values while ensuring the guidance of patient values in all clinical decisions (Brown, 1999). A patient-centered approach to healthcare shifts the focus of nurses from a task orientation to patient-centeredness where the values and needs of patients are considered. Patient-centered care makes communication and relationship with patients the basis for nursing practice. A recent research study into experiences of patients with nurses’ communication points out that nurses focus more task as opposed to communicating with patients. This shows that not much has changed towards embracing the patient-centered approach and perhaps many healthcare institutions still lack practices and systems that present the core values of patient-centered care (Stein-Parbury, 2009).

The Institute of Medicine identified patient-centeredness as one of the specific aims in the carrying out the project of restructuring the American healthcare (Institute of Medicine, 2001). There is evidence indicating the use of certain patient-centered strategies by advanced nurses and patients in clinical practice to co-produce clinical discourse that are highly individualized (Brown, 1999). A study was conducted at a big children’s hospital in order to determine the extent to which PCC affects satisfaction with both communication and care. The study required parents of child patients to report on the communication practices of nurses, physicians and other hospital team members during their latest stay in the hospital. The results of the study linked the use of PCC behaviors, particularly immediacy and perceived listening to the satisfaction with communication and care. Additionally, the study indicated a frequent use of PCC behaviors with children in better health than those on poorer health status. Generally, a few people enjoy receiving healthcare because they often get distressed whenever they visit physicians. Patient anxiety may result from lack of supportive and patient-oriented communication behaviors among the healthcare providers (Wanzer, Booth-Butterfield, & Gruber, 2004).

Many government policies and initiatives have promoted service-user involvement and patient-centered communication as basic concepts in the delivery of high-quality healthcare. The World Health Organization (WHO) also encourages these initiatives by incorporating indicators of health services responsiveness, which is a combination of health system effectiveness and patient satisfaction, in its World Health Reports (Jones, 2006).  For instance, some major policy programs have recently resolved to focus on patient-centered communication importance between patients and health professionals in delivering initiatives like shared decision-making (Institute of Medicine, 2001). In addition, various nursing literature have reflected and supported these initiatives. The assimilation of these concepts in both literature and health policy to enhance nursing practices raises questions as to what constitutes suitable and effective clinical communication. This scenario calls for more research concerning nurse communication practices as they transpire in clinical practice (Jones, 2006).

Among the limitations of research on nurse-patient interaction is the lack of work that sufficiently explores communication styles in natural clinically based conversations between patients and nurses rather than collecting research data from focus group discussion and staged interviews with nurses or interactions between nurses and the patients’ family members. Aled Jones from School of Health Science, Swansea University, United Kingdom, collected and analyzed research data from student-patient interactions in order to gain some insights into the present interaction practices between student nurses and patients. At the end of the study, he concluded that students experience difficulty in applying the principles of effective communication learnt from the classroom into their individual interactions with patients (Jones, 2006).

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Critique of Research Report

Critique of Research Report

Student’s Name

Name of institution

1        Introduction

  1. Statement of the problem

            This study is clear about the problem that research seeks to identify and find the possible solutions to. The statement of the problem lies in the fact that most patients who are in critical health conditions and using life –supporting equipment in the ICU are not in a position to make their own health related decisions. This calls for the intervention of the close family members who are allowed to make decisions on their own. The study thus is out to analyze various factors in relation to the idea of family members making critical decisions on behalf of their sick relatives.

  1. Purpose of the Study

            The purpose of this study is clearly outlined as seeking to find out the experiences that family members of the patients have while they make decisions that are critical to the health of the patients and provide the most appropriate approach on way forward in regards to their health.

  1. Specific objecties
  • Analyze factors that either promote or hinder decision making of the patients’ signatories/relatives
  • Understand the effects of the decisions made by the relatives.
  • Determine the factors that guide the family members in knowing what to rely on when making decisions.

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